One of the last surviving members of the British Colonial Service in Malaya, an anthropologist, a lawyer and businessman, and an eminent historian of Malaysia. In 1946 he joined the Malayan Civil Service. His skills as an administrator, his fairness and his insight into the political and social complexities of Malaya, became widely recognised. His clarity of vision during Malaya's journey to independence confirmed his credibility with the British, Malay, Indian and Chinese communities. In 1962 he qualified as a solicitor and eventually became senior partner in a City of London law firm. In 1987 he published what became the standard text book on Company Law. For some years he served as deputy chairman of the governors of LSE. Over 60 years he published a steady flow of books and articles, the best-known being a series of histories of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor.